Challenged parenthood

Successful parenting is a function of parental characteristics or history, contextual challenges, and the availability of adequate support. This perspective is brought to bear on observational studies of incarcerated parents, parents with visual disabilities, and parents with intellectual disabilities. Goals for developing this topic further are (1) to understand motivation and expectations of success in the face of difficulties in parenthood; (2) to provide evidence for the efficacy of interventions in challenged parents; (3) to explain openness or resistance to professional or natural support in child rearing.